Formative Assessment

This type of assessment is important for both students and me because it gives an indication of where each student is individually and where the class is collectively with the content and skills. It also helps me understand on a daily level if the students have acquired the intended learning outcomes of the lesson, and adjust accordingly during the next lesson or time of review. As an example of how I have included formative assessments into a unit, the following table lists the formative assessment used in each lesson during the heat and temperature unit:

Lesson
Formative Assessment Type
1
3-2-1 Chart: 3 things you learned, 2 things you found interesting, 1 question you still have
3
WYW questions: drawing molecules, answers from previous lab activity
4
Exit slip question: what happens when something changes phase?
5
WYW questions: recopy answers from homework
6
WYW questions: identify the type of heat transfer that exists in each scenario
7
Quiz
9
WYW questions: vocabulary review
10
Test review with personal response system
Out of the 10 lessons, 8 have formative assessments included. Some of these are more informal, such as the WYW questions, and others are more formal, such as the 3-2-1 chart, exit slip question, quiz, and test review.

Summative Assessment

I have created a summative assessment in the form of a unit test for a unit on heat and temperature, which fulfills Competency 16 of the School of Education Competencies for pre-service teachers. This assessment identifies the intended learning outcomes according to the Virginia Standards of Learning for heat and temperature, and employs those to guide the assessment (and instruction) given at the end of the unit. With a table of specifications, I have formed an overall unit assessment plan that includes this summative unit assessment. Another table of specifications gives the breakdown of individual content and cognitive levels from the intended learning outcomes, and shows that the curriculum does drive and relate directly to the summative unit assessment. This paper is quite lengthy, but I have intended it to thoroughly explain how I have created the test and give the test and answers for each question. Enjoy.

Nathan Belcher_Test Creation Project.pdf
Heat and Temperature Unit Test.pdf
Heat and Temperature Unit Test Answer Sheet.pdf
In addition to administering the unit test, I had to analyze the results to determine if students had actually acquired the intended learning outcomes set forth in the table of specifications. The following paper is that analysis, which again is quite lengthy.
Nathan Belcher_Analysis and Critique.pdf

Growth of Students

The easiest way to show the growth of students is through their grades on the heat and temperature quiz and test. The quiz is a formative assessment that occurred at the seventh lesson of the unit, and I used the results from this quiz to re-teach topics on which students had very many problems before giving the students the unit test. The following table shows student growth between the quiz and test:

Student
Quiz Grade
Test Grade
1
83
92
2
50
73
3
71
81
4
81
93
5
85
93
6
54
68
7
82
83
8
89
94
9
93
92
10
80
89
11
86
78
12
50
--
13
76
82
14
76
98
15
88
100
16
96
96
17
89
91
18
50
88
19
78
85
20
92
91
21
65
83
22
71
94
23
63
94
24
75
78
25
73
93


Of the 25 students, 20 students had a grade increase from the quiz to the test. One student did not take the test, and the other four students' grades only dropped slightly between the quiz and test. Therefore, I may draw the conclusion that utilizing the results from the quiz to re-teach some topics and move into greater depth in other topics helped the students acquire the intended learning outcomes for the test.


Lesson Based on Student Assessment Results

After scoring the quizzes and seeing the results, I designed lessons 8, 9, and 10 to not only cover the topics listed in the table of specifications but also to address some of the weaknesses in student understanding. Lessons eight (Heat and Temperature Lesson 8.pdf) and nine (Heat and Temperature Lesson 9.pdf) discussed applications of heat transfer, which brought in prior knowledge students needed to have acquired in previous lessons, and if they did not have this knowledge I re-taught the content within the context of heat transfer. By presenting the content in a different manner the students were able to grapple with it further and make connections with real-life experiences. Lesson 10 (Heat and Temperature Lesson 10.pdf) was a review for the test, and this was a catch-all day for any content with which the students were uncomfortable. Some students asked very pointed questions about specific content, which shows these students are beginning to understand where they have holes in their knowledge and taking the initiative to correct these gaps.